I Have a Dream…

I Have A Dream – Martin Luther King Jr.
As pronounced to the march on Washington, DC, 28 August 1963.

I am happy to join with you today in what will go down in history as the greatest demonstration for freedom in the history of our nation.

Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation. This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves who had beenseared in the flames of withering injustice. It came as a joyous daybreak to end the long night of their captivity.

But one hundred years later, the Negro still is not free. One hundred years later, the life of the Negro is still sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination. One hundred years later, the Negro lives on a lonely island of poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity. One hundred years later, the Negro is still languished in the corners of American society and finds himself an exile in his own land. And so we’ve come here today to dramatize a shameful condition.

In a sense we’ve come to our nation’s capital to cash a check. When the architects of our republic wrote the magnificent words of the constitution and the Declaration of Independence, they were signing a promissory note to which every American was to fall heir. This note was a promise that all men, yes, black men as well as white men, would be guaranteed the “unalienable Rights” of “Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.”

It is obvious today that America has defaulted on this promissory note, insofar as her citizens of color are concerned. Instead of honoring this sacred obligation, America has given the Negro people a bad check, a check which has come back marked “insufficient funds.” But we refuse to believe that thebank of justice is bankrupt. We refuse to believe that there are insufficient funds in the great vaults of opportunity of this nation. And so, we’ve come to cash this check, a check that will give us upon demand the riches of freedomand the security of justice. We have also come to this hallowed spot to remind America of the fierce urgency of Now. This is no time to engage in theluxury of cooling off or to take the tranquilizing drug of gradualism. Now is the time to make real the promises of democracy. Now is the time to rise from the dark and desolate valley of segregation to the sunlit path of racial justice. Now is the time to lift our nation from the quicksands of racial injustice to the solid rock of brotherhood. Now is the time to make justice a reality for all of God’s children.

It would be fatal for the nation to overlook the urgency of the moment. Thissweltering summer of the Negro’s legitimate discontent will not pass until there is an invigorating autumn of freedom and equality. Nineteen sixty-three is not an end, but a beginning. And those who hope that the Negro needed to blow off steam and will now be content will have a rude awakening if the nation returns to business as usual. And there will be neither rest nor tranquility in America until the Negro is granted his citizenship rights. The whirlwinds of revolt will continue to shake the foundations of our nation until the bright day of justice emerges.

But there is something that I must say to my people, who stand on the warm threshold which leads into the palace of justice: In the process of gaining our rightful place, we must not be guilty of wrongful deeds. Let us not seek to satisfy our thirst for freedom by drinking from the cup of bitterness and hatred.

We must forever conduct our struggle on the high plane of dignity and discipline. We must not allow our creative protest to degenerate into physical violence. Again and again, we must rise to the majestic heights of meeting physical force with soul force. The marvelous new militancy which has engulfed the Negro community must not lead us to a distrust of all white people, for many of our white brothers, as evidenced by their presence here today, have come to realize that their destiny is tied up with our destiny. And they have come to realize that their freedom is inextricably bound to our freedom.We cannot walk alone.

And as we walk, we must make the pledge that we shall always march ahead. We cannot turn back. There are those who are asking the devotees of civil rights, “When will you be satisfied?” We can never be satisfied as long as the Negro is the victim of the unspeakable horrors of police brutality. We can never be satisfied as long as our bodies, heavy with the fatigue of travel, cannot gain lodging in the motels of the highways and the hotels of the cities. *We cannot be satisfied as long as the negro’s basic mobility is from a smaller ghetto to a larger one. We can never be satisfied as long as our children are stripped of their self-hood and robbed of their dignity by a sign stating: “For Whites Only.”* We cannot be satisfied as long as a Negro in Mississippi cannot vote and a Negro in New York believes he has nothing for which to vote. No, no, we are not satisfied, and we will not be satisfied until “justice rolls down like waters, and righteousness like a mighty stream.”

I am not unmindful that some of you have come here out of great trials and tribulations. Some of you have come fresh from narrow jail cells. And some of you have come from areas where your quest — quest for freedom left you battered by the storms of persecution and staggered by the winds of police brutality. You have been the veterans of creative suffering. Continue to work with the faith that unearned suffering is redemptive.

Go back to Mississippi, go back to Alabama, go back to South Carolina, go back to Georgia, go back to Louisiana, go back to the slums and ghettos of our northern cities, knowing that somehow this situation can and will be changed. Let us not wallow in the valley of despair.

I say to you today, my friends. And so even though we face the difficulties of today and tomorrow,

I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream.

I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal.”

I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia, the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood.

I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injusticesweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice.

I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.

I have a dream today!

I have a dream that one day, down in Alabama, with its vicious racists, with its governor having his lips dripping with the words of “interposition” and “nullification” — one day right there in Alabama little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers.

I have a dream today!

I have a dream that one day every valley shall be exalted, and every hill and mountain shall be made low, the rough places will be made plain, and the crooked places will be made straight; “and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed and all flesh shall see it together.”

This is our hope, and this is the faith that I go back to the South with. With this faith, we will be able to hew out of the mountain of despair a stone of hope. With this faith, we will be able to transform the jangling discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood. With this faith, we will be able to work together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go to jail together, to stand up for freedom together, knowing that we will be free one day.

And this will be the day — this will be the day when all of God’s children will be able to sing with new meaning:My country ’tis of theesweet land of liberty, of thee I sing. Land where my fathers died, land of the Pilgrim’s pride. From every mountainside, let freedom ring!

And if America is to be a great nation, this must become true. And so let freedom ring from the prodigious hilltops of New Hampshire. Let freedom ring from the mighty mountains of New York. Let freedom ring from theheightening Alleghenies of Pennsylvania.

Let freedom ring from the snow-capped Rockies of Colorado!

Let freedom ring from the curvaceous slopes of California!

But not only that: Let freedom ring from Stone Mountain of Georgia!

Let freedom ring from Lookout Mountain of Tennessee!

Let freedom ring from every hill and molehill of Mississippi. From every mountainside, let freedom ring.

And when this happens, when we allow freedom ring, when we let it ring from every village and every hamlet, from every state and every city, we will be able to speed up that day when all of God’s children, black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics, will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual: Free at last! Free at last!

Thank God Almighty, we are free at last!


SO, this speech gonna be my study this time! enjoy reading! 😉

Concordance Exercise

Form a group of 4 students. Use AntConc application software to perform the task. Copy the speech text to notepad. In notepad, name the file: ihad.txt. Open AntConc application software. In AntConc, open the ihad.txt file.

A. Word List
– Click the Word List button
– Find ten most frequent words in the text.
– Report your findings in your own blog.

B. Concordance
– Click the Concordance button
– Type the phrase in the Search Term box.
– Determine the frequency, the manner and the meaning of the phrase in the speech context
– Report your findings in your own blog.

List of Phrase. Each group is assign to choose one of the phrase given below:
01. I have a dream
02. one hundred years
03. we refuse
04. satisfied
05. Now is the time
06. With this faith
07. go back
08. this will be the day
09. free at last
10. Let freedom ring

My group members are nini and mira. We need to do the task above and analyse the speech by Martin Luther King Jr. (I Have a Dream). Hope all readers will like this post! yehaa! ^_*

aha! i forget something. -_-‘

the word that we need to do is ‘GO BACK‘ and I will CROSSED it so you will be easy to find it in the text above.

okay readers, lets GO BACK to the main topic! ehee.. 😀



Based on AntConc I choose 10 words that I find intriguing while reading the text. The reason I choose these words simply because it portray what really happen in America during that time. The 10 most captivating words are :

  • freedom (20 times)
  • Negro (14 times)
  • dream (11 times)
  • nation (11 times)
  • justice (8 times)
  • white (6 times)
  • America (4 times)
  • hundred (4 times)
  • Mississippi (4 times)
  • Alabama (3 times)
Based on one of the Antconc tool, concordance there are seven hits for KWIC for the phrase ‘go back‘. The phrase found in Line 63 and Line 86 in Martin Luther King’s speech.
  • The Frequency

The phrase ‘go back’ are used 7 times in the famous speech.

  • The manner

I Have A Dream is one of the famous and powerful historical speech. [2]According to Andrew Dlugan in his article dated 18th of January 2009, Martin Luther King’s (MLK) masterpiece included five key lessons in speech-writing :

  1. Emphasize phrases by repeating at the beginning of sentences
  2. Repeat key “theme” words throughout the speech
  3. Utilize appropriate quotations or allusions
  4. Use specific examples to “ground” the arguments
  5. Use metaphors to highlight contrasting concepts

In the speech, anaphora has been used. This rhetorical tool employed throughout the speech. Martin Luther King repeated words twice or more, this style sets the pattern, and further repetitions emphasize the pattern and increase the rhetorical effect. Emphasis through repetition makes these phrases more memorable, and, by extension, make King’s story more memorable (Dlugan, 2009) .  The example of anaphora is found as MLK used the phrase ‘go back‘. This phrase is one of the eight repeated sentences along with I Have a Dream, Let The freedom rings, With this faith, and Now Is The Time.

  • The meaning

In American racial history timeline[3], during 1900 to 1960 the timeline revealed the most shame state of affairs in America. During that era,racism takes place resulting a dreadful poverty, a cruel brutality and injustice particularly in the north to the south in America. The zones in America includes ‘Border States” (Delaware, Kentucky, Missouri, and the urban areas of Maryland), the “Mid South” (Virginia, the East Shore of Maryland, North Carolina, Florida, Tennessee, Arkansas, Texas), and the “Deep South” (South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Louisiana). Not to mentions, Mississippi where the absolute deepest pit of racism, violence, and poverty.[4]


  1. Wikipedia. (2011). AntConc. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AntConc
  2. Dlugan A. (2009). Speech Analysis: I Have a Dream-Martin Luther King Jr. http://sixminutes.dlugan.com/speech-analysis-dream-martin-luther-king/
  3. Wallace H. (-) American Racial History Timeline 1900-1960. http://www.occidentaldissent.com/american-racial-history-timeline-2/american-racial-history-timeline-1900-1960/
  4. The Struggling for Voting Right in Mississippi. http://www.crmvet.org/info/voter_ms.pdf

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